Citations in Text
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The following exercises require you to either (a) cite research in the text, or (b) quote another author’s work in the text of your essay or research report.

The author-date method of citation enables the reader to identify the source of research because the surname of the author/s and the year of publication are inserted in the text of the essay or report.

In quotations, you must provide the specific page number of the work you have quoted, as well as the author and year of publication.

All citations are then listed in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the essay or research report.

You can use two general formats to reference citations in text:

1. Citation is integrated into the text: Author surname appears as part of the narrative. Only the year of publication is typed in parentheses. An example is shown below.

Boden (1998) examined social psychology ...

2. Citation is placed in parentheses: Both author surname and publication year placed in parentheses. An example is shown below.

Research evidence suggests that social psychology... 

(Boden, 1998).

Quotations can take one of two forms, depending on the number of words quoted:

1. Quotations fewer than 40 words – quotation is integrated into the text with double quotation marks.

2. Quotations more than 40 words – quotation is written in a separate block of text, starting on a new line.




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