Referencing Checklist
Home ] Up ] [ Referencing Checklist ] Journals ] Books ] Newspapers/Magazines ] Electronic Media ] Reference List ]


As a checklist the following APA referencing guidelines apply:


Type the reference list on a separate page, immediately following the last page of the essay or research report.
Remember that you should include a manuscript page header and page number in the top right hand corner of every page. Allow five spaces between the manuscript page header and the page number.
The title "References" should be centred on the top line of the page.
All reference entries should be double-line spaced, with no spare line spaces in between each reference entry.
Only include works that you have cited in the text.
Check that all reference entries use the hanging indent (i.e., the first line of the reference entry is flush left, and the subsequent lines are indented five to seven spaces).
Check that the title of the publication in each reference is italicised.
Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author.
For entries with no author, arrange by order of the title article.
For references by the same author with the same year of publication, place lowercase letters – a, b, c, and so on - immediately after the year, within the parentheses.

Single Author

One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first.
One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname.

Two or More Authors

References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author, and so on.
References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first.


For references to an entire book, italicise the book title. The first word of book title and subtitle, if any, should be capitalised. The publishing details should include the city of publication, followed by a colon, then the name of the publisher.
For chapters or articles within an edited book, capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper names. Do not italicise the chapter title. Italicise the title of the book. Unlike the format for the author’s name, the editors’ initials come before their surnames. The abbreviation "Ed." or "Eds." is included in parentheses after the editors’ surnames, and before the book title, with a comma separating "(Eds.)" from the book title. The page numbers of the chapter are listed in parentheses after the name of the book. The abbreviation "pp." is used before the numerals. Provide publishing details at the end.


For journal articles, capitalise only the first word on the article title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper names. Do not italicise the title of the article. The journal name (written in Title Case) and volume number should be italicised. Include a comma and space between the journal name and volume number. In cases where the journal has continuous pagination, include a comma after the volume number, and follow with the page numbers. For journals with non-continuous pagination, do not include a comma after the volume number. Rather, include the issue number of the journal in parentheses immediately following the volume number. Place a comma after the issue number and follow with the page numbers. The parentheses and issue number should not be italicised.

Newspapers and Magazines

For newspaper and magazine articles, include the year, month and day as part of the date of publication. Italicise the name of the newspaper or magazine. Include a comma at the end of the newspaper or magazine name, and follow with the page numbers. Note that for newspaper entries, you include the letters "p." or "pp." before the page number/s. For magazines, you do not include the letters "pp." before the page numbers.

Electronic Media

For references to an on-line abstract, cite the specific on-line database it came from, and include the date of retrieval and any other information needed to retrieve this item. This might include a World Wide Web address or an item number in a database.
For references that were obtained via an on-line database, include a retrieval statement at the end of the reference. The retrieval statement includes the date that you accessed the information (month, day and year) and the name of the database.
Articles in an internet-only journal are referenced the same way as a published journal, with the addition of the retrieval statement at the end (i.e., web address).
Some articles published on-line are exact reproductions of those in their print versions. If you viewed an article only in its electronic form, you should add the words "Electronic version" in square brackets after the title of the article.
Messages posted to on-line discussion groups and newsgroups are referenced using a form similar to on-line journal articles, but the subject line of the message is used as the article title (not italicised). Also, include the words "Message posted to" before the URL address.
When information has been sourced from the World Wide Web, you should include the same basic elements as used in referencing written documents, and add a retrieval statement to the end. When no author is identified, begin the reference with the title of the document. The retrieval statement should outline the exact date of retrieval and give the address of the Web site.

Return to top of page




Home Up Next